Frequently Asked Questions

How do I cite The Generalizer in my work?

Tipton, E. & Miller, K. (2021) The Generalizer. Webtool hosted at

In addition to citing the software, users should also cite the research that develops the methods used in the tool.

For those planning studies, this paper is relevant:

Tipton, E. (2014) Stratified sampling using cluster analysis: A sample selection strategy for improved generalizations from evaluations. Evaluation Review, 37(2): 109-139.

For those assessing the generalizability of a study, this paper is relevant:

Tipton, E. (2014) How generalizable is your evaluation? Comparing a sample and population through a generalizability index. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 39(6): 478 – 501.

How do I cite the data used in The Generalizer?

2017-18 Common Core of Data for K-12 schools and school districts

2016-17 Integrated Post-Secondary Data (IPEDS) for colleges and universities

2013-17 American Community Survey School District Data System

How do I cite the methods used in The Generalizer?

Where can I go for an overview of methods for generalization?

The following paper provides a review of methods for planning studies, assessing generalizability, and estimating population average treatment effects:

Tipton, E., & Olsen, R. B. (2018). A review of statistical methods for generalizing from evaluations of educational intervention. Educational Researcher, 47(8), 516-524.